Canada's electoral history from 1867 to today

The excesses of the first-past-the-post system

by Maurice Y. Michaud (he/him)

AWith exactly 50% of the votes for one party, no one else can be heard.side from the fact that it is easy to understand and implement, one might be tempted to think that it could give fair results in a context where there are only two dominant political parties. However, since the 1920s, there have been more than two dominant political parties in many Canadian jurisdictions and, in fact, in places where there are only two, the FPTP system has tended to overcompensate the winning party — sometimes to the point of an absurdity that seems anti-democratic by any reasonable measure.

The two most extreme cases in Canadian history in essentially two-party jurisdictions were the 1935 general election in Prince Edward Island, when the provincial Liberal Party won all 30 seats in the legislative assembly by getting 57.9% of the votes, and the 1987 election in New Brunswick when that province's Liberal Party swept up all 58 seats in the legislature with 60.4% of the vote — convincing majorities of the vote, certainly, but absolute majorities?

Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island
43 → 1935 :: 23 Jul 1935 — 17 May 1939 — Majority Majority  LIB 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 43   Majority Majority
Majority=16  Ab.Maj.: +15  G.Maj.: +30
Population [1931]: 88,038
Eligible: ——  Particip.: ——
Votes: 75,664  Unproductive: 31,840
Seats: 30   1 seat = 3.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 30  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +11,984 (+15.84%)
Plurality:  Seats: +30 (+100.00%)
Candidacies: 60   m: 60
 LIB  30   PC  30  
LIB
43,824 57.92 100.00 30
PC
REJ
ABS
31,840
——
——
42.08
——
——
New Brunswick New Brunswick
51 → 1987 :: 13 Oct 1987 — 22 Sep 1991 — Majority Majority  LIB 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 51   Majority Majority
Majority=30  Ab.Maj.: +29  G.Maj.: +58
Population [1986]: 709,442
Eligible: 501,642  Particip.: 81.96%
Votes: 411,136  Unproductive: 164,434
Seats: 58   1 seat = 1.72%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 58  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +129,905 (+31.80%)
Plurality:  Seats: +58 (+100.00%)
Candidacies: 184   m: 153   f: 31    x: 0
 LIB  58   PC  58   NDP  52   IND  10  
LIB
246,702 60.39 100.00 58
PC
NDP
IND
REJ
ABS
116,797
43,083
1,934
2,620
93,126
28.59
10.55
0.47
0.64
——

Examples of overcompensation of winning political parties that were less spectacular but just as striking include the 1975 and 1979 Alberta elections, and the 1973 Québec election. In these three cases, the winning party — the Progressive Conservatives in Alberta and the Liberal Party in Québec — obtained enormous pluralities and 92 to 93 percent of the seats. Yet the Alberta PCs had gotten "only" 62.7% of the votes in 1975 and 57.4% in 1979, while the Québec Liberals received a huge seat bonus with their 54.7% of the votes.

Alberta Alberta
18 → 1975 :: 26 Mar 1975 — 13 Mar 1979 — Majority Majority  PC 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 18   Majority Majority
Majority=38  Ab.Maj.: +32  G.Maj.: +63
Population [1971]: 1,627,874
Eligible: 994,158  Particip.: 59.58%
Votes: 592,354  Unproductive: 34,591
Seats: 75   1 seat = 1.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 75  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  PC  Seats  PC 
Plurality:  +262,553 (+44.48%)
Plurality:  Seats: +65 (+86.67%)
Candidacies: 293   m: 259   f: 34    x: 0
 PC  75   SC  70   NDP  75   OTH  23   LIB  46   IND  4  
PC
369,764 62.65 92.00 69
SC
NDP
OTH
107,211
76,360
4,428
18.17
12.94
0.75
5.33
1.33
1.33
4
1
1
LIB
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
29,424
625
2,358
2,184
403,988
4.99
0.11
0.40
0.37
——
19 → 1979 :: 14 Mar 1979 —  1 Nov 1982 — Majority Majority  PC 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 19   Majority Majority
Majority=40  Ab.Maj.: +35  G.Maj.: +69
Population [1976]: 1,838,037
Eligible: 1,215,490  Particip.: 58.71%
Votes: 713,654  Unproductive: 52,289
Seats: 79   1 seat = 1.27%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 79  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  PC  Seats  PC 
Plurality:  +266,813 (+37.53%)
Plurality:  Seats: +70 (+88.61%)
Candidacies: 334   m: 290   f: 44    x: 0
 PC  79   SC  79   NDP  79   LIB  78   IND  8   OTH  11  
PC
408,097 57.40 93.67 74
SC
NDP
OTH
141,284
111,984
19.87
15.75
5.06
1.27
4
1
LIB
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
43,792
3,430
2,376
2,691
504,527
6.16
0.48
0.33
0.38
——
Québec Québec
30 → 1973 :: 29 Oct 1973 — 14 Nov 1976 — Majority Majority  QLP 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 30   Majority Majority
Majority=56  Ab.Maj.: +47  G.Maj.: +94
Population [1971]: 6,027,764
Eligible: 3,763,911  Particip.: 80.39%
Votes: 3,025,738  Unproductive: 209,489
Seats: 110   1 seat = 0.91%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 110  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  QLP  Seats  QLP 
Plurality:  +725,925 (+24.43%)
Plurality:  Seats: +96 (+87.28%)
Candidacies: 479   m: 453   f: 26    x: 0
 QLP  110   PQ  110   SC  109   UN  110   IND  26   OTH  14  
QLP
1,623,734 54.65 92.73 102
PQ
SC
897,809
294,706
30.22
9.92
5.45
1.82
6
2
UN
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
146,209
7,195
1,325
54,760
792,933
4.92
0.24
0.04
1.81
——

Similarly, although the Progressive Conservative Party could be commended for achieving the rare feat federally of winning 50% of the popular vote in the 1984 general election, was its majority in the House of Commons not grossly exaggerated? Based of the popular vote, we could have expected the Liberal Party to have won close to twice as many seats and about two thirds more for the NDP, while the Conservatives netted nearly 50% more. In short, FPTP has this annoying tendency to create crushing but oversized victories.

Canada Canada
33 → 1984 ::  4 Sep 1984 — 20 Nov 1988 — Majority Majority  PC 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 33   Majority Majority
Majority=142  Ab.Maj.: +70  G.Maj.: +140
Population [1981]: 23,916,745
Eligible: 16,808,826  Particip.: 75.19%
Votes: 12,637,815  Unproductive: 421,231
Seats: 282   1 seat = 0.35%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 282  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  PC  Seats  PC 
Plurality:  +2,762,332 (+22.01%)
Plurality:  Seats: +171 (+60.64%)
Candidacies: 1,449   m: 1,232   f: 217    x: 0
 PC  282   LIB  282   NDP  282   IND  85   OTH  458   GRN  60  
PC
6,278,818 50.03 74.82 211
LIB
NDP
IND
3,516,486
2,359,915
61,365
28.02
18.81
0.49
14.18
10.64
0.35
40
30
1
OTH
GRN
REJ
ABS
305,527
26,751
88,953
4,259,964
2.43
0.21
0.70
——
By Regions (1984)

Atlantic (NB, NL, NS, PE)


Population [1981]: 2,214,155 (9.26%)
Eligible: 1,875,016  Particip.: 70.17%
Votes: 1,315,785  Unproductive: 546,785
Seats: 32 (9.47%)  1 seat = 3.13%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 32  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 142   m: 100   f: 42    x: 0
 LIB  32   32   NDP  32   GRN  31   IND  8   OTH  7  
LIB
769,000 58.73 100.00 32
NDP
GRN
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
249,136
234,699
46,234
9,107
1,226
6,383
559,231
19.03
17.92
3.53
0.70
0.09
0.49
——

Québec (QC)


Population [1981]: 6,369,065 (26.63%)
Eligible: 6,393,478  Particip.: 67.31%
Votes: 4,303,758  Unproductive: 182,411
Seats: 78 (23.08%)  1 seat = 1.28%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 78  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 474   m: 331   f: 143    x: 0
 LIB  78   78   NDP  78   78   GRN  78   IND  14   OTH  70  
LIB
1,515,673 35.73 51.28 40
NDP
1,075,366
709,164
821,144
25.35
16.72
19.36
20.51
15.38
12.82
16
12
10
GRN
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
95,395
3,438
21,307
62,271
2,089,720
4.51
0.20
0.50
1.45
——

Ontario (ON)


Population [1981]: 8,534,265 (35.68%)
Eligible: 9,691,517  Particip.: 67.82%
Votes: 6,541,572  Unproductive: 268,451
Seats: 121 (35.80%)  1 seat = 0.83%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 121  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 621   m: 435   f: 186    x: 0
 LIB  121   121   NDP  121   GRN  121   IND  31   OTH  106  
LIB
2,929,393 44.78 66.12 80
NDP
2,293,393
1,081,111
35.06
16.53
27.27
6.61
33
8
GRN
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
190,797
12,573
34,275
30,806
3,119,139
2.92
0.19
0.52
0.47
——

Prairies (MB, SK)


Population [1981]: 1,970,145 (8.24%)
Eligible: 1,667,388  Particip.: 68.14%
Votes: 1,157,032  Unproductive: 44,073
Seats: 28 (8.28%)  1 seat = 3.57%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 28  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  Seats
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 126   m: 90   f: 36    x: 0
 LIB  28   28   NDP  28   GRN  28   IND  3   OTH  11  
LIB
399,961 34.71 28.57 8
NDP
492,464
220,534
42.73
19.14
53.57
17.86
15
5
GRN
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
30,471
4,575
4,393
4,634
510,356
2.64
0.40
0.38
0.40
——

Alberta (AB)


Population [1981]: 2,213,650 (9.26%)
Eligible: 2,842,504  Particip.: 68.15%
Votes: 1,937,228  Unproductive: 88,911
Seats: 34 (10.06%)  1 seat = 2.94%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 34  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  Seats
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 196   m: 143   f: 53    x: 0
 LIB  34   34   NDP  34   GRN  34   IND  14   OTH  46  
LIB
473,416 24.52 11.76 4
NDP
1,150,101
224,800
59.57
85.29
85.29
2.94
29
1
GRN
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
48,742
16,422
17,160
6,587
905,276
2.52
0.85
0.89
0.34
——

British Columbia (BC)


Population [1981]: 2,713,615 (11.35%)
Eligible: 3,392,598  Particip.: 65.98%
Votes: 2,374,317  Unproductive: 26,488
Seats: 42 (12.43%)  1 seat = 2.38%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 42  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 221   m: 150   f: 71    x: 1
 LIB  42   42   NDP  42   GRN  41   IND  10   OTH  44  
LIB
829,816 35.09 40.48 17
NDP
GRN
615,156
708,010
194,847
26.01
29.94
8.24
33.33
23.81
2.38
14
10
1
IND
OTH
REJ
ABS
3,501
13,446
9,541
1,018,281
0.15
0.57
0.40
——

North (NT, NU, YT)


Population [1981]: 68,615 (0.29%)
Eligible: 77,241  Particip.: 66.66%
Votes: 51,485  Unproductive: 25,807
Seats: 3 (0.89%)  1 seat = 33.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 3  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 12   m: 10   f: 2    x: 0
 LIB  3   3   NDP  3   GRN  3  
LIB
25,678 50.16 100.00 3
NDP
GRN
REJ
ABS
11,365
12,897
1,252
293
25,756
22.20
25.19
2.45
0.57
——

But then who can forget the 1993 federal election that saw that same Progressive Conservative Party win only 0.7% of the seats (i.e. 2) on the weight of 16% of the votes against the Liberal Party's 60% of the seats (i.e. 177) for getting 41.3% of the votes? Although the PC Party did come back a little in 1997 and 2000, it is widely agreed that its 1993 spanking, prompted in good part by the wear of power and a profound disatisfaction towards the party but also by the rise of Western Canadian conservatism, relegated it to the dustbin of history.

Canada Canada
35 → 1993 :: 25 Oct 1993 —  1 Jun 2007 — Majority Majority  LIB 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 35   Majority Majority
Majority=148  Ab.Maj.: +30  G.Maj.: +59
Population [1991]: 27,167,094
Eligible: 19,814,718  Particip.: 69.96%
Votes: 13,862,010  Unproductive: 573,399
Seats: 295   1 seat = 0.34%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 295  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +3,088,707 (+22.60%)
Plurality:  Seats: +123 (+41.69%)
Candidacies: 2,156   m: 1,678   f: 478    x: 0
 LIB  295   BQ  75   REF  207   NDP  294   PC  295   IND  152   NP  171   NLP  231   GRN  79  
 OTH  357  
LIB
5,647,952 41.32 60.00 177
BQ
REF
NDP
PC
IND
1,846,024
2,559,245
939,575
2,186,422
109,393
13.51
18.72
6.87
16.00
0.80
18.31
17.63
3.05
0.68
0.34
54
52
9
2
1
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
187,251
84,743
32,979
74,087
194,339
6,147,047
1.37
0.62
0.24
0.54
1.40
——
By Regions (1993)

Atlantic (NB, NL, NS, PE)


Population [1991]: 2,322,081 (8.55%)
Eligible: 1,788,610  Particip.: 64.48%
Votes: 1,153,254  Unproductive: 204,544
Seats: 32 (10.85%)  1 seat = 3.13%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 32  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +351,494 (+30.80%)
Plurality:  Seats: +31 (+93.75%)

Candidacies: 169   m: 134   f: 35    x: 0
 LIB  32   REF  21   NDP  32   PC  32   IND  6   NP  12   NLP  21   GRN  2   OTH  11  
LIB
650,102 56.96 96.88 31
PC
298,608 26.16 3.13 1
REF
NDP
IND
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
96,141
61,412
14,503
8,029
7,783
556
4,171
11,949
647,305
8.42
5.38
1.27
0.70
0.68
0.05
0.66
1.04
——

Québec (QC)


Population [1991]: 6,895,963 (25.38%)
Eligible: 4,995,256  Particip.: 77.52%
Votes: 3,872,516  Unproductive: 242,074
Seats: 75 (25.42%)  1 seat = 1.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 75  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  BQ  Seats  BQ 
Plurality:  +610,156 (+16.29%)
Plurality:  Seats: +35 (+46.67%)

Candidacies: 468   m: 364   f: 104    x: 0
 LIB  75   BQ  75   NDP  74   PC  75   IND  19   NP  14   NLP  47   GRN  6   OTH  83  
LIB
1,235,868 33.01 25.33 19
BQ
PC
IND
1,846,024
506,683
41,867
49.30
13.53
1.12
72.00
1.33
1.33
54
1
1
NDP
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
57,339
4,939
30,972
3,572
16,937
128,315
1,251,055
1.53
0.13
0.83
0.10
0.45
3.31
——

Ontario (ON)


Population [1991]: 10,084,885 (37.12%)
Eligible: 7,260,082  Particip.: 67.74%
Votes: 4,918,206  Unproductive: 1,352,450
Seats: 99 (33.56%)  1 seat = 1.01%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 99  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +1,600,374 (+32.79%)
Plurality:  Seats: +97 (+97.98%)

Candidacies: 794   m: 621   f: 173    x: 0
 LIB  99   REF  98   NDP  99   PC  99   IND  53   NP  74   NLP  88   GRN  34   OTH  150  
LIB
2,583,065 52.93 98.99 98
REF
982,691 20.14 1.01 1
NDP
PC
IND
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
291,658
859,596
37,375
56,977
25,939
13,213
29,702
37,990
2,379,866
5.98
17.61
0.77
1.17
0.53
0.27
0.61
0.77
——

Prairies (MB, SK)


Population [1991]: 2,080,870 (7.66%)
Eligible: 1,495,622  Particip.: 69.01%
Votes: 1,032,094  Unproductive: 159,403
Seats: 28 (9.49%)  1 seat = 3.57%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 28  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +145,909 (+14.20%)
Plurality:  Seats: +11 (+39.28%)

Candidacies: 201   m: 160   f: 41    x: 0
 LIB  28   REF  28   NDP  28   PC  28   IND  15   NP  21   NLP  17   OTH  36  
LIB
399,430 38.86 60.71 17
NDP
REF
219,740
253,521
21.38
24.66
21.43
17.86
6
5
PC
IND
NP
NLP
OTH
REJ
ABS
119,712
5,134
21,600
3,243
5,548
4,166
467,694
11.65
0.50
2.10
0.32
0.54
0.40
——

Alberta (AB)


Population [1991]: 2,545,553 (9.37%)
Eligible: 1,793,912  Particip.: 67.28%
Votes: 1,206,871  Unproductive: 275,695
Seats: 26 (8.81%)  1 seat = 3.85%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 26  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  REF  Seats  REF 
Plurality:  +327,628 (+27.21%)
Plurality:  Seats: +18 (+69.24%)

Candidacies: 193   m: 149   f: 44    x: 0
 LIB  26   REF  26   NDP  26   PC  26   IND  17   NP  19   NLP  25   GRN  12   OTH  16  
LIB
301,774 25.07 15.38 4
REF
629,402 52.28 84.62 22
NDP
PC
IND
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
49,097
175,556
5,758
28,637
6,748
3,316
3,541
3,042
590,083
4.08
14.58
0.48
2.38
0.56
0.28
0.29
0.25
——

British Columbia (BC)


Population [1991]: 3,282,061 (12.08%)
Eligible: 2,422,563  Particip.: 67.72%
Votes: 1,640,636  Unproductive: 335,978
Seats: 32 (10.85%)  1 seat = 3.13%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 32  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  REF  Seats  REF 
Plurality:  +134,797 (+8.26%)
Plurality:  Seats: +18 (+56.25%)

Candidacies: 316   m: 239   f: 77    x: 1
 LIB  32   REF  32   NDP  32   PC  32   IND  42   NP  30   NLP  32   GRN  24   OTH  60  
LIB
458,802 28.11 18.75 6
REF
NDP
593,599
252,257
36.37
15.46
75.00
6.25
24
2
PC
IND
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
219,838
4,756
66,773
9,845
11,997
14,127
8,642
790,569
13.47
0.29
4.09
0.60
0.74
0.87
0.53
——

North (NT, NU, YT)


Population [1991]: 85,446 (0.31%)
Eligible: 58,673  Particip.: 65.50%
Votes: 38,433  Unproductive: 11,450
Seats: 3 (1.02%)  1 seat = 33.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 3  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +10,839 (+28.38%)
Plurality:  Seats: +1 (+33.33%)

Candidacies: 15   m: 11   f: 4    x: 0
 LIB  3   REF  2   NDP  3   PC  3   NP  1   NLP  1   GRN  1   OTH  1  
LIB
18,911 49.51 66.67 2  NDP  8,072 21.13 33.33 1
REF
PC
NP
NLP
GRN
OTH
REJ
ABS
3,891
6,429
296
213
325
61
235
20,475
10.19
16.83
0.77
0.56
0.85
0.16
0.61
——

Admittedly, not all elections held under the FPTP system have yielded such counterintuitive results, but rare are the examples of results that have fairly accurately reflected the will of the people, with few distortions. The 1960 Québec general election is one of them. But the more predominant and strange hallmark of FPTP is that at least one party is often grossly over- or underrepresented, not to mention that the party winning the plurality of votes in the entire jurisdiction is not guaranteed to be called upon to form government, as was the case six years later when, to everyone's surprise, the Union nationale formed a majority government as it did back in 1944 by losing the popular vote even more in '66! So, a puzzling bug of FPTP is that it can lead to the "wrong winner," which is something that has occurred several times in Canada, including most recently in the 2019 and 2021 federal generals elections.

Québec Québec
26 → 1960 :: 22 Jun 1960 — 13 Nov 1962 — Majority Majority  QLP 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 26   Majority Majority
Majority=48  Ab.Maj.: +4  G.Maj.: +7
Population [1956]: 4,628,378
Eligible: 2,584,103  Particip.: 81.19%
Votes: 2,121,035  Unproductive: 43,161
Seats: 95   1 seat = 1.05%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 95  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  QLP  Seats  QLP 
Plurality:  +99,814 (+4.77%)
Plurality:  Seats: +8 (+8.42%)
Candidacies: 254   m: 254
 QLP  95   UN  95   IND  16   OTH  48  
QLP
1,077,135 51.38 53.68 51
UN
IND
977,321
23,418
46.61
1.12
45.26
1.05
43
1
OTH
REJ
ABS
18,725
24,436
510,501
0.89
1.15
——
28 → 1966 ::  5 Jun 1966 — 28 Apr 1970 — Majority Majority  UN 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 28   Majority Majority
Majority=55  Ab.Maj.: +2  G.Maj.: +4
Population [1966]: 5,780,845
Eligible: 3,203,597  Particip.: 73.09%
Votes: 2,367,710  Unproductive: 260,283
Seats: 108   1 seat = 0.93%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 108  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  QLP  Seats  UN 
Plurality:  +141,321 (+6.08%)
Plurality:  Seats: -6 (-5.55%)
Candidacies: 418   m: 407   f: 11    x: 0
 UN  108   QLP  107   IND  30   RIN  74   RN  88   OTH  11  
UN
948,928 40.82 51.85 56
QLP
IND
1,090,249
68,250
46.90
2.94
46.30
1.85
50
2
RIN
RN
OTH
REJ
ABS
129,331
74,110
13,810
43,032
905,086
5.56
3.19
0.59
1.82
——
22 → 1944 ::  8 Aug 1944 — 27 Jul 1948 — Majority Majority  UN 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 22   Majority Majority
Majority=46  Ab.Maj.: +3  G.Maj.: +5
Population [1941]: 3,331,882
Eligible: 1,848,128  Particip.: 72.04%
Votes: 1,345,400  Unproductive: 63,866
Seats: 91   1 seat = 1.10%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 91  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  QLP  Seats  UN 
Plurality:  +13,030 (+0.98%)
Plurality:  Seats: -11 (-12.09%)
Candidacies: 333   m: 333
 UN  92   QLP  90   BPC  80   CCF  25   IND  17   UE  12   OTH  17  
UN
510,293 38.37 52.75 48
QLP
BPC
CCF
IND
523,323
191,564
37,001
19,353
39.35
14.40
2.78
1.46
40.66
4.40
1.10
1.10
37
4
1
1
UE
OTH
REJ
ABS
16,542
31,893
15,431
532,239
1.24
2.40
1.15
——
Canada Canada
43 → 2019 :: 21 Oct 2019 — 19 Sep 2021 — Majority Minority  LIB 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 43   Majority Minority
Majority=170  Ab.Maj.: -13  G.Maj.: -24
Population [2016]: 35,008,821
Eligible: 27,373,058  Particip.: 67.04%
Votes: 18,350,359  Unproductive: 537,754
Seats: 338   1 seat = 0.30%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 338  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +210,765 (+1.16%)
Plurality:  Seats: -36 (-10.65%)
Candidacies: 2,146   m: 1,396   f: 748    x: 2
 LIB  338   CPC  337   BQ  78   NDP  338   GRN  337   IND  127   PPC  315   OTH  276  
LIB
6,018,728 33.12 46.45 157
CPC
BQ
NDP
GRN
IND
6,229,493
1,387,030
2,903,722
1,187,494
86,138
34.28
7.63
15.98
6.54
0.47
35.80
9.47
7.10
0.89
0.30
121
32
24
3
1
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
294,092
64,183
179,479
9,022,699
1.62
0.35
0.98
——
By Regions (2019)

Atlantic (NB, NL, NS, PE)


Population [2016]: 2,333,322 (6.66%)
Eligible: 1,924,903  Particip.: 68.39%
Votes: 1,316,345  Unproductive: 45,009
Seats: 32 (9.47%)  1 seat = 3.13%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 32  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 179   m: 127   f: 52    x: 0
 LIB  32   CPC  32   NDP  32   GRN  32   IND  12   PPC  17   OTH  22  
LIB
532,505 40.89 81.25 26
CPC
NDP
GRN
372,812
206,173
159,846
28.63
15.83
12.27
12.50
3.13
3.13
4
1
1
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
10,950
15,521
4,497
14,041
608,558
0.84
1.19
0.35
1.07
——

Québec (QC)


Population [2016]: 8,164,361 (23.32%)
Eligible: 6,482,847  Particip.: 67.25%
Votes: 4,284,338  Unproductive: 355,322
Seats: 78 (23.08%)  1 seat = 1.28%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 78  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 562   m: 361   f: 201    x: 0
 LIB  78   CPC  78   BQ  78   NDP  78   GRN  78   IND  26   PPC  77   OTH  69  
LIB
1,468,603 34.28 44.87 35
BQ
CPC
NDP
1,387,030
684,661
464,414
32.37
15.98
10.84
41.03
12.82
1.28
32
10
1
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
193,420
8,458
62,951
14,801
75,692
2,198,509
4.51
0.20
1.47
0.35
1.74
——

Ontario (ON)


Population [2016]: 13,448,494 (38.41%)
Eligible: 10,484,419  Particip.: 66.27%
Votes: 6,947,807  Unproductive: 605,050
Seats: 121 (35.80%)  1 seat = 0.83%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 121  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 744   m: 487   f: 257    x: 0
 LIB  121   CPC  121   NDP  121   GRN  120   IND  44   PPC  117   OTH  100  
LIB
2,863,719 41.55 65.29 79
CPC
NDP
2,277,937
1,158,696
33.05
16.81
29.75
4.96
36
6
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
427,558
30,726
108,427
13,185
25,154
3,536,612
6.20
0.45
1.57
0.36
0.78
——

Prairies (MB, SK)


Population [2016]: 2,376,717 (6.79%)
Eligible: 1,735,331  Particip.: 68.14%
Votes: 1,182,534  Unproductive: 79,348
Seats: 28 (8.28%)  1 seat = 3.57%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 28  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  CPC 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 166   m: 101   f: 64    x: 1
 LIB  28   CPC  28   NDP  28   GRN  28   IND  11   PPC  28   OTH  15  
LIB
224,927 19.14 14.29 4
CPC
NDP
640,715
237,544
54.54
20.22
75.00
10.71
21
3
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
45,426
2,079
20,445
3,733
7,665
552,797
3.87
0.18
1.74
0.32
0.65
——

Alberta (AB)


Population [2016]: 4,067,175 (11.62%)
Eligible: 3,023,980  Particip.: 69.25%
Votes: 2,093,981  Unproductive: 414,372
Seats: 34 (10.06%)  1 seat = 2.94%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 34  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  CPC 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 211   m: 136   f: 75    x: 0
 LIB  34   CPC  34   NDP  34   GRN  34   IND  7   PPC  34   OTH  34  
CPC
NDP
1,438,233
241,376
69.05
11.59
97.06
2.94
33
1
LIB
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
288,010
59,271
1,696
46,672
7,703
11,020
929,999
13.83
2.85
0.08
2.24
0.37
0.53
——

British Columbia (BC)


Population [2016]: 4,648,055 (13.28%)
Eligible: 3,641,258  Particip.: 65.98%
Votes: 2,402,554  Unproductive: 62,916
Seats: 42 (12.43%)  1 seat = 2.38%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 42  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  CPC 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 270   m: 175   f: 94    x: 1
 LIB  42   CPC  41   NDP  42   GRN  42   IND  27   PPC  40   OTH  36  
LIB
624,545 26.16 26.19 11
CPC
NDP
GRN
IND
801,628
583,401
297,835
32,229
33.58
24.44
12.48
1.35
40.48
26.19
4.76
2.38
17
11
2
1
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
39,496
8,295
15,125
1,238,704
1.65
0.35
0.63
——

North (NT, NU, YT)


Population [2016]: 113,604 (0.32%)
Eligible: 80,320  Particip.: 58.65%
Votes: 47,108  Unproductive: 18,571
Seats: 3 (0.89%)  1 seat = 33.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 3  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality: 
Plurality:  Seats:

Candidacies: 14   m: 9   f: 5    x: 0
 LIB  3   CPC  3   NDP  3   GRN  3   PPC  2  
LIB
16,419 35.11 66.67 2
NDP
12,118 25.91 33.33 1
CPC
GRN
PPC
REJ
ABS
13,507
4,138
580
346
33,212
28.88
8.85
1.24
0.73
——
44 → 2021 :: 20 Sep 2021 — Present     — Majority Minority  LIB  Majority Majority  LIB   NDP 
Details Government Opposition Unproductive votes
Party Votes Seats Party Votes Seats Party Votes
# % % # # % % # # %
Parliament: 44   Majority Minority
Majority=170  Ab.Maj.: -11  G.Maj.: -20
Population [2021]: 36,991,981
Eligible: 27,366,297  Particip.: 62.56%
Votes: 17,209,811  Unproductive: 1,138,340
Seats: 338   1 seat = 0.30%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 338  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +202,436 (+1.19%)
Plurality:  Seats: -40 (-11.83%)
Candidacies: 2,010   m: 1,247   f: 760    x: 3
 LIB  337   CPC  336   BQ  78   NDP  336   GRN  252   IND  95   PPC  312   OTH  264  
LIB
5,537,638 32.51 47.04 159
CPC
BQ
NDP
GRN
IND
5,740,074
1,301,615
3,022,328
396,988
72,828
33.70
7.64
17.74
2.33
0.43
35.21
9.47
7.40
0.59
0.30
119
32
25
2
1
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
840,993
121,779
175,568
10,156,486
4.94
1.18
1.02
——
By Regions (2021)

Atlantic (NB, NL, NS, PE)


Population [2021]: 2,409,874 (6.51%)
Eligible: 1,926,091  Particip.: 61.85%
Votes: 1,199,549  Unproductive: 304,632
Seats: 32 (9.47%)  1 seat = 3.13%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 32  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +144,019 (+12.12%)
Plurality:  Seats: +16 (+50.00%)

Candidacies: 162   m: 96   f: 66    x: 0
 LIB  32   CPC  31   NDP  31   GRN  23   IND  5   PPC  29   OTH  11  
LIB
519,468 43.69 75.00 24
CPC
375,449 31.57 25.00 8
NDP
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
195,746
37,112
6,335
51,609
3,367
10,463
726,542
16.46
3.12
0.53
4.34
0.28
0.87
——

Québec (QC)


Population [2021]: 8,501,833 (22.98%)
Eligible: 6,508,575  Particip.: 63.49%
Votes: 4,132,267  Unproductive: 314,354
Seats: 78 (23.08%)  1 seat = 1.28%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 78  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +62,870 (+1.55%)
Plurality:  Seats: +3 (+3.84%)

Candidacies: 558   m: 345   f: 212    x: 1
 LIB  78   CPC  78   BQ  78   NDP  78   GRN  56   IND  17   PPC  64   OTH  109  
LIB
1,364,485 33.66 44.87 35
BQ
CPC
NDP
1,301,615
756,412
395,401
32.11
18.66
9.76
41.03
12.82
1.28
32
10
1
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
61,488
8,476
108,744
56,620
79,026
2,363,488
1.52
0.21
2.68
1.40
1.91
——

Ontario (ON)


Population [2021]: 14,223,942 (38.45%)
Eligible: 10,437,524  Particip.: 62.00%
Votes: 6,505,569  Unproductive: 369,670
Seats: 121 (35.80%)  1 seat = 0.83%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 121  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +271,741 (+4.21%)
Plurality:  Seats: +40 (+33.06%)

Candidacies: 660   m: 407   f: 252    x: 1
 LIB  120   CPC  120   NDP  120   GRN  91   IND  36   PPC  116   OTH  57  
LIB
2,516,231 38.98 63.64 77
CPC
NDP
GRN
IND
2,244,490
1,144,083
142,678
43,741
34.77
17.73
2.21
0.68
30.58
4.13
0.83
0.83
37
5
1
1
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
350,150
13,185
6,335
3,931,955
5.42
0.20
0.78
——

Prairies (MB, SK)


Population [2021]: 2,474,658 (6.69%)
Eligible: 1,724,667  Particip.: 63.01%
Votes: 1,096,490  Unproductive: 111,862
Seats: 28 (8.28%)  1 seat = 3.57%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 28  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  CPC 
Plurality:  +289,069 (+26.54%)
Plurality:  Seats: +17 (+60.71%)

Candidacies: 170   m: 105   f: 64    x: 1
 LIB  28   CPC  28   NDP  28   GRN  24   IND  17   PPC  28   OTH  17  
LIB
214,937 19.74 14.29 4
CPC
NDP
529,380
240,311
48.61
22.07
75.00
10.71
21
3
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
15,134
2,093
77,488
9,651
7,496
628,177
1.39
0.19
7.12
0.89
0.68
——

Alberta (AB)


Population [2021]: 4,262,635 (11.52%)
Eligible: 3,006,753  Particip.: 64.45%
Votes: 1,954,910  Unproductive: 209,385
Seats: 34 (10.06%)  1 seat = 2.94%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 34  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  CPC 
Plurality:  +705,244 (+36.30%)
Plurality:  Seats: +28 (+82.36%)

Candidacies: 214   m: 148   f: 66    x: 0
 LIB  34   CPC  34   NDP  34   GRN  21   IND  9   PPC  33   OTH  49  
LIB
299,493 15.41 5.88 2
CPC
NDP
1,075,638
370,394
55.36
19.06
88.24
5.88
30
2
GRN
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
17,483
5,314
142,479
32,288
11,821
1,051,843
0.90
0.27
7.33
1.66
0.60
——

British Columbia (BC)


Population [2021]: 5,000,879 (13.52%)
Eligible: 3,693,776  Particip.: 61.40%
Votes: 2,279,961  Unproductive: 135,006
Seats: 42 (12.43%)  1 seat = 2.38%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 42  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  CPC  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +86,340 (+3.82%)
Plurality:  Seats: -2 (-4.76%)

Candidacies: 233   m: 141   f: 92    x: 0
 LIB  42   CPC  42   NDP  42   GRN  35   IND  9   PPC  42   OTH  21  
LIB
608,588 26.87 35.71 15
CPC
NDP
GRN
750,394
664,054
121,919
33.14
29.32
5.38
30.95
30.95
2.38
13
13
1
IND
PPC
OTH
REJ
ABS
2,439
110,523
6,668
15,376
1,413,815
0.11
0.29
1.66
0.67
——

North (NT, NU, YT)


Population [2021]: 118,160 (0.32%)
Eligible: 81,731  Particip.: 49.78%
Votes: 41,065  Unproductive: 14,290
Seats: 3 (0.89%)  1 seat = 33.33%
Elec.Sys.:  FPTP: 3  
↳ By acclamation: 0 (0.00%)
Plurality: Votes  LIB  Seats  LIB 
Plurality:  +2,097 (+5.16%)
Plurality:  Seats: +1 (+33.34%)

Candidacies: 13   m: 5   f: 8    x: 0
 LIB  3   CPC  3   NDP  3   GRN  2   IND  2  
LIB
14,436 35.48 66.67 2
NDP
12,339 30.32 33.33 1
CPC
GRN
IND
REJ
ABS
8,311
1,174
4,430
375
40,666
20.43
2.89
10.89
0.91
——

Perhaps you are thinking that I selected these examples because they make my point and ignored those that contradict it. However, aside from the first two examples which were glaringly obvious, I had to deliberate long and hard as to which ones out of the 408 partisan general elections I should present here, for rare are those that do not have some degree of distortion between the popular vote and the seat counts. You can go see for yourself in "Setting aside partisanship" in this section of this website or with all the numbers like above in "General Election Summaries" of the Elections section.

But perhaps before you do that, allow me to make my full-on argument for PR.



© 2022 Maurice Y. Michaud :: PoliCan.ca
Pub.:  9 May 2022 23:15
Rev.: 18 Jun 2022 15:39